The Panama Canal Death Tolls

A crew of West Indian "Powder Men" transporting 50 lb. boxes of dynamite on their heads.

A crew of West Indian "Powder Men" transporting 50 lb. boxes of dynamite on their heads.

By Lydia M. Reid

The actual building of the Panama Canal which, unknown to many, was carried out in two phases, brought in a whole new series of factors in calculating the cost of building an engineering marvel of the kind that was inaugurated in 1914 in the tiny republic of Panama.  The first building phase known as the French Period lasted ten years from 1881-1889.  It, as well as the American Period, 1904-1914, will be remembered for its audacity but, more than for its boldness and engineering innovation, it will recall the enormous price paid in human life.

On the heels of the most costly piece of railroad track ever built in terms of human lives, The Panama Railroad, the French Period of the building of the Panama Canal simply carried forward and highlighted the hazards from the construction of the Railroad.  The building of the Canal by the French Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interocéanique was plagued from the start with the problems inherent in building a structure of its kind in a tropical country.  It has been said that five hundred lives were lost for every mile (about fifty miles) of the length of the Canal, or a total of 25,000 deaths.

The tropical diseases inherent in cutting through dense, virgin jungle, and working in the uniquely hot and humid climate of Panama, not to mention boring through a particularly difficult isthmian terrain to enable the joining of the two oceans were the first factors in elevating the death tolls.  There was a period of time when Panama gained the dubious distinction as a tropical pest hole and a “white man’s grave” from which any white man in his right mind should steer clear.  Malaria, Yellow Fever, dysentery, typhoid, dengue, not to mention the difficulties of adapting to the tropical heat took a grand toll on the lives of the few hardy souls from France and the Caribbean islands that dared to venture to Panama.

The greatest price was paid by the laborers who came by the boatloads to the isthmus to work on the building of the waterway.  The racial disparities, as we will see, became a flagrant reminder that “Panama was four times more deadly for the black man than it was for the white.” The black laborers, who were generally West Indian, if they survived, would remember the many wondrous and worthwhile things about their Canal experience.  Throughout their reminiscences, however, they would recall the “tremendous physical exertion and…the constant fear of being killed,” since their deaths filled the fatality statistics by a large margin.

Death by violence was probably even more feared than disease since, particularly during the French Period, train derailments, falls from trains (dirt cars etc.), being crushed under land and mud slides, and suffocation from noxious gases was commonplace.  Sudden death in too many cases would probably have been preferable to survival after violent dismemberment as a consequence of being caught under the wheels of a train and a life of pain and feelings of uselessness.

With the entrance of the Americans into the Canal construction in 1904 the Yankee’s reliance on dynamite to quickly blast away layers of soil and rock from the Cuts to carve out the Canal route the ever present possibility of being blown to pieces became a new worry for especially the black workers.  The “powder men,” those extremely daring souls who transported the thousands of fifty pound boxes of dynamite on their heads or shoulders, along with the men who drilled the charge holes into the side of rocky precipices were often the victims of accidental or “premature” explosions.  Most of the men who actually handled the dynamite and the charge boxes, in fact, were black West Indians as you will note in the image of the period and they disproportionately paid any false move or mistake in timing on the part of their bosses or co-workers.  In understanding the nature of dynamite even the “sweat” produced by this highly unstable material is liable to set off an explosion if not handled delicately.

There were also the ghastly rail accidents.  Even Gorgas himself at one point was preoccupied with the number of violent fatalities; they were “very excessive” he acknowledged particularly since so many were caused by railroad accidents.  Hundreds of black men lost their life and limb in falls from moving dirt cars and other rail transport particularly in moving spoil and men to and from the greatest of all challenges- Culebra Cut. Many descendants of the original Silver Men today will readily admit that Culebra Cut, in its entirety, should be considered a large scale burial groundun campo santo- for the amount of West Indian lives lost during construction.

The continual runs of the death or funerary trains became legendary during the Canal construction years.  The routine passage of these trains loaded with the bodies of dead, mostly West Indian workmen, who had died while on the job, was a sorry sight for the survivors who looked on with somber acknowledgement of those who, only a short while before, had worked by their side.  The funeral trains carried the deceased to Colon on their pick up rounds out of Empire (Culebra).

“From Colon the Panama Railroad ran regular funeral trains out to Monkey Hill each morning.”  “Over to Panama,” S.W. Plume would recall in his memorable testimony, “it was the same way- bury, bury, bury, running two, three, and four trains a day with dead Jamaica niggers all the time…It did not matter any difference whether they were black or white, to see the way they died there.  They died like animals.”*

What the world never imagined would be the thousands of bodies either blown to pieces or buried under mud slides and rock that were never recovered by the rescue and clean up crews that combed the sites after the explosions and deathly slides.  There were also the “sick who never made it to the hospital- for the vast majority that is- the end was frequently even more gruesome.”

“The accusation that ‘black workers were sometimes disposed of in the dumping grounds- simply rolled down an embankment, then buried beneath several tons of spoil,’ appears in several accounts and is undoubtedly based on fact.”**

The numbers offered in our modern historical accounts seem to represent only a minor detail in calculating the cost of modernizing our present technological world, and yet they are only a glimpse of the great price paid by our black Caribbean ancestors.  It is estimated that 22,000 laborers died between 1881 and 1889, the French period, and the American death toll was officially 5,609, brining the total estimated human cost to 27,609.  However, our world today is indebted to an infinitely larger number of men who braved the hardships and perils of working on the construction of the Panama Canal.

Cited from The Path Between the Seas- the Creation of the Panama Canal 1970-1914, by David McCullough, * page 173, **page 173

29 responses to “The Panama Canal Death Tolls

  1. Very valuable information about the cost in human lives, in a large scale project such as the construction of the Panama Canal. I am doing research about the subject of medical services during the construction of the tras-Andean railroad in Ecuador. Thousands of railroad workers died, for the same reasons cited in this article. My great grandfather was an American doctor who was contracted to treat the “tropical diseases inherent in cutting through dense, virgin jungle, and working in the uniquely hot and humid climate” of the tropical mountain section. A lot has been written about the construction of the railroad in Ecuador, but very little about the cost in human lives. It was information that was kept under wraps, for fear of political repercussions or public outrage.

    Four thousand Jamaicans and other West Indian workers were contracted to work in the mountain region, from 1900-1902. About half of them perished for the same causes as Panama. The lives of railroad laborers had very little value, in the eyes of contractors and political leaders in charge. My impression is that they thought of workers deaths, as casualties of war during military battles. They counted laborers as number of expendable soldiers. As they lost thousands, they recruited thousands more. Names became irrelevant, they buried many in common graves, near the railroad tracks. No markers or names.

    Your article will be helpful in my research. Jamaican workers, participated in many large-scale public works, in various countries. Among them Costa Rica, Panama and Ecuador.


  2. looking for William M or William E Wilson who may have worked on the Panama Canal and may beo ne of the dead. Thank you.


  3. 20 years of construction and 25,000 deaths means an average of just under 3.5 deaths per day, so those supposedly daily funeral trains must not have run near as frequently or as full as the author of this article would like you to believe. And, virtually all accounts attribute over half the deaths of workers building the canal to disease. So an average of less than two people a day were killed by accident or violence. Such losses were terrible, but the death rate was far less than half during the American period versus the French period, yet the hate encouraged by articles like this is focused almost entirely against the United States, which shows the hate is based more on misinformation and politics than on facts. It should also be pointed out that the construction of the canal was in a time period before most countries cared about the lives of their poorest workers, regardless of color, yet the efforts by U.S. medical teams not only drastically reduced the death rates by introducing better sanitation and eradicating mosquitoes, they spread their knowledge all over the world saving the lives of countless millions.


    • Hi,
      Thank you for stopping by and leaving your opinion. I quote, “yet the hate encouraged by articles like this is focused almost entirely against the United States, which shows the hate is based more on misinformation and politics than on facts.” I don’t see where our article promotes hate towards the U.S. or any of the “super” powers of the time. We quoted our facts and figures from Prof. David McCullough’s book, a well researched and well written reference book on the construction of the Canal. He, a two time Pulitzer prize winner, took years to write it and many times quoted directly from documents, journals and old official files he found from the period in question.
      Then there is the perception regarding how many deaths were not even tallied as they had become so numerous and there was no longer time nor space for a proper cemetery burial. The bodies rolled over embankments into ditches and buried over “common grave” style never made it to the funeral trains.


  4. My grandfather a Jamaican went to Panama and never return. His surname was Murray


    • Hello Tasia,
      We get many stories like yours where grandfathers, fathers, uncles, brothers etc., came to Panama never to be heard from again. Some of them we have helped to track and find and many we have not found.

      Thanks for stopping by.


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  6. My grand Father was from Jamaica .He work on the panama canal he never return to Jamaica my wife grand father all went to Panama and never return.Is there a way i can find out any thing about him


    • Mr. Allen,
      Yes, there is. You begin by looking around on the Internet on web sites that have forums and some have services (some are free but some do charge) on which you can search their data bases. If, after you have looked around, and aren’t satisfied with your results, we do have a research department that can look for you; we have been successful with most of our searches but, we do charge for these searches.


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  10. Is there a place were we can find the names of workers that die in the Panama Canal construction and their stories?


  11. Whitout having to say too much, consider this fact. As a result of our forefathers sacrifice what could of otherwise been just a spot on the map is considered, heart of the world and fountain of the universe.


  12. In Monkey Hill Cemetary in Colon in the office they have record books with some burried workers names there. Hope you find the information.


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    I trying to find any information on the Guillette family of Panama please. Thank you


  15. My great grandfather was one of those that died at the panama canal while it was being built, how do I find his name or where he was buried. When he and his wife died ( dont know the reason) his children was sent to be raised by his family. Please if anyone knows please contact me at


  16. Renaldo Manuel Ricketts

    My father once mentioned how racist white bosses would kick Black men over embankments to their deaths; this of course went unpunished just like the south in the US. They brought apartheid to the Isthmus of Panama laced with their sickness called racism. Some leading psychologist today says racism is a mental illness. You would think so, it’s also contagious. They seem to hand it down from being in close quarters. I have no idea what causes racism, but I believe they should be working on a cure for their malady. I can just imagine the atrocities committed on behalf of “Americans.”

    They should pay reparations today for the barbarism they inflicted on the Black population from the Islands. These merciless scoundrels historically have proven to be the most brutal overseers in the last few hundred years. We’re looking at 100s of millions of lives lost in the Atlantic slave trade of 300 yrs.


    • Yes, and former President Bush walked out on the International Conference in Durban, South Africa on the triangle trade and slavery. He and the U.S. contingent did not want to even recognize the issue.

      How, I ask, are they going to pay reparations when they don’t want to recognize the Silver People Heritage which is now embodied in the Silver Cemeteries Law (The Silver People Law up before The National Assembly). Click on the link that says The Silver People Law here on the sidebar and you can read it in English and Spanish.



    • A Black-Muslim Slave-owner/master was the first to arrive in the colonies with a ship carrying Slaves on board. The same Black-Muslim initiated the sales of Black African Slaves there and became just one of many other Black-Muslim Slavers along what is now the East Coast of America. Many of the Slave Ships were owned by Jewish financiers, with some of the ships having Jewish Captains and I’ve got a big secret for you, a number of the Slave Owners in the American South were Jewish and the Bankers were involved all the way up to their necks. But you don’t get to hear the truth.

      Do some homework and you’ll find that (ALL) the blame is being levied on (today’s) White people in another attempt at White-Genocide. Blacks were involved and so were other Non-Whites.

      I’m white and my family was made up of Abolitionists going all the way back to when the Slave ships first arrived here in what became the US. Many of my forefathers lost their lives in various battles against Slave-owners. You never hear of the price they paid over many years in defeating slavery. Some of the descendants of those who were involved in the Slave trade are now hypocritically blaming the descendants of White Abolitionists for a Slave-trade that actually fought against… both irony and hypocrisy are flowing like a river.

      It was Blacks themselves and later Black Muslims with plenty of Jewish Banking investment that initiated the Slave trade.

      It took a certain number of Whites to end that Slave trade… but many people today will quickly forget my words as soon as they’ve read this, as they wouldn’t want to appear disagreeable to the overwhelming wave of White Genocide taking place throughout the US Lamestream-media’s treasonous direction by America’s Left and their current cohorts the Muslim Brotherood. Watch them both objectively and carefully and you’ll see for yourself. Both the Blacks and Whites and now being subjected to mind-programming intended to create the worst divisiveness in America’s history.

      It’s time the (whole) truth was told.


  17. Michael Donaldson

    I like the post and is actually wondering how to find my great-grand parents who may have been there. Obviously they survived or I wouldn’t be here. Anyway is there any way I can get an actual name of someone or persons who worked there. Just wanted to know.


    • Renaldo Manuel Ricketts

      Has anyone ever sued the American gov. for back wages,and reparations, I think it’s quite apropos. Why should they get a free ride for running a death camp in the construction of the canal? Why hasn’t the US c0mpensated families for the atrocities that took the lives of thousands ,I believe their should be compensation for families of these workers .Germany has paid billions to Jews who suffered at the hands of nazis. People having to work in these deploranble conditions should be compensated some how,a fund should be set up for surviving relatives. Trauma is generational !


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    Copious thanks for this historical information regarding West Indian workers and the Panama Canal.


  20. Kyle,

    Thanks for stopping by and leaving a thought. In fact, thanks to you we discovered one of the deadly by-products of dynamite- “sweat”- and how extremely unstable it was/is. It was only later that more scientific use of dynamite was promoted amongst the workers.



  21. Seems that carrying the dynamite that close together is asking for more troubles. chain reaction if one explodes.

    Working under those conditions was just not right…

    Kyle & Svet

    PS: We just moseyed on through to say hi!


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